Treatment of a Female Patient by a Male Doctor

In the Name of Allāh,

the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful

Praise is due to Allāh, Lord of the worlds, may the blessings and peace be upon our master Muḥammad, the last of prophets, on his family, and all his companions.

Resolution No. 81 (12/8) Treatment of a Female Patient by a Male Doctor

The Council of the International Islamic Fiqh Academy of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, holding its 8th session in Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam, on 1–7 Muḥarram 1414h (21–27 June 1993),

Having examined the research papers received by the Academy concerning the Treatment of a Female Patient by A Male Doctor,

Having listened to the discussions on the subject,


As a principle, if a female specialist doctor is available, then she should be the one to examine the female patient. In the absence of such a specialist, the fe- male patient may be examined by a trustworthy non-Muslim woman doctor, if not then by a Muslim male doctor, and if not, then by a non-Muslim male doctor, provided that in diagnosing and treating the ailment, the male doctor should see only the minimum necessary of the patient’s body and lower his gaze to the extent possible.

The male doctor’s treatment of a female patient should be in the presence of a maḥram (eligible blood relative) or a husband or a trustworthy woman, to avoid khalwah (unlawful seclusion of persons of opposite sex).


Given the insufficient number of female medical doctors, especially in gyne- cology and obstetrics, health authorities must make every effort to encourage women to enroll in medical studies and their different specialties, in order to avoid resorting to the rules of exception.

Indeed, Allāh is the Giver of success.

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