Plastic Surgeries and their Shariah Rulings
In the Name of Allāh,
the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful
Praise is due to Allāh, Lord of the worlds, may the blessings and peace be upon our master Muḥammad, the last of prophets, on his family, and all his companions.
Resolution No. 173 (11/18) Plastic Surgeries and their Shariah Rulings
The Council of the International Islamic Fiqh Academy of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, holding its 18th session in Putrajaya, Malaysia, on 24–29 Jumādā al-Ākhirah 1428h (9–14 July 2007),
Having examined the research papers submitted to the Academy concerning
Plastic Surgeries and their Shariah Rulings,
Having listened to the in-depth discussions on the subject,
First: Definition of Plastic Surgery
It is a surgery that aims to improve or modify the form of an apparent part of the human body or restore its impaired function if it was distorted.
Second: General Criteria and Conditions for Plastic Surgeries
- The surgery should achieve a Shariah-acceptable benefit such as restora- tion of an impaired function, repair of a defect, or restitution of a bodily part to original form of creation
- The surgery should not lead to harm that exceeds the benefit expected from This should be decided by competent and trustworthy specialists.
- The surgery should be operated by a specialized physician; otherwise, li- ability will ensue as indicated by the Academy resolution 142 (8/15).
- The surgery should be permitted by the patient (surgery seeker).
- The physician should undertake to explicitly enlighten the patient about the risks and possible complications which could result from the
- There should be no other way of treatment that is less harmful to the body than surgery.
- The surgery should not lead to violation of the directives of Shariah, such as the ḥadīth of the Prophet SAWnarrated by Ibn Masʿūd يضر هللا هنع: “May Allāh
curse tattoo makers and tattoo takers, removers of hair from the face and receivers of removal, and/or teeth cleaving for mere beauty; changers of Allāh creation.” (Reported by al-Bukhārī) And the ḥadīth reported from Ibn ʿAbbās يضر هللا امهنع that the Prophet SAW said, “Cursed are those who attach artificial hair and those who receive it, removers of hair from the face and receivers of removal and tattoo makers and tattoo takers; without a reason of curing sickness.” (Reported by Abū Dāwūd) Also, the Prophet SAW prohibited women from imitating men and men imitating women, in addition to texts which prohibit imitating other nations or persons that are known for their dissoluteness and debauchery.
- Other Shariah rulings on such treatments should also be well observed, especially avoidance of solitude of man and woman and uncovering pri- vate parts of the body to others without
Third: Shariah Rulings
It is permissible according to Shariah to conduct and undertake needful and necessary plastic surgeries that are intended to achieve one of the following purposes:
- Restoration of the original form of parts of the body because Allāh The Almighty said, «We have indeed created human being in the best of moulds.» (Al-Tīn, 4)
- Restoration of the normal functions of the
- Rectification of congenital defects of the body such as a split lip, a crooked nose, a birthmark, an additional finger or tooth, or sticking teeth or fingers, when such defects cause severe physical or psychological
- Rectification of contingent (acquired) defects, as when burns, accidents and sicknesses necessitate surgeries like skin transplant or grafting, breast re-formation after removal, or hair transplant, especially for women.
- Dealing with a state of unusual ugliness that causes physical or psychological hardship (Academy resolution 26 [1/4]).
- It is not permissible to conduct or undertake ameliorative plastic surger- ies that do not come under medical treatment and are intended simply to alter the person’s normal natural appearance in pursuit of mere desires and imitation of others. Examples here include changing the shape of face, nose, lips, eyes, or cheeks to appear in a particular look or deceive
- It is permissible to reduce weight by using accredited scientific means, including surgery (fat suction) if the weight has become a morbid case and there is a no less harmful way for reducing it with the condition of safely from risks.
- It is not permissible to remove skin wrinkles by surgery or injection un- less it has become a morbid problem, providing that it can be adminis- tered
- It is permissible to mend a lady’s hymen that was torn by an accident, rape or coercion while it is not permissible to mend it if it has been torn up through commitment of adultery/fornication, so disrupt excuses for Mending of a torn hymen may preferably be conducted by female surgeons.
- Plastic surgery specialists should adhere to the rules of Shariah in their profession and provide helpful advice to their patients because advice is a core aspect of religion; “Religion is Advice.”
- Public hospitals, private clinics and physicians should always fear Allāh
The Almighty and refrain from conducting the prohibited types of plastic surgery.
- Physicians and surgeons should seek Fiqh knowledge and rulings about practicing the medical profession, especially in plastic surgery. They should avoid being driven into doing such surgeries by the material gain only without assuring their Shariah-permissibility. They should not resort to misleading fallacious marketing propaganda.
Indeed, Allāh is All-Knowing.