Dialogue between Followers of Islamic Denominations

In the Name of Allāh,

the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful

Praise is due to Allāh, Lord of the worlds, may the blessings and peace be upon our master Muḥammad, the last of prophets, on his family, and all his companions.

Resolution No. 202 (8/21)

Dialogue between Followers of Islamic Denominations

The Council of the International Islamic Fiqh Academy of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, holding its 21st session in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, on 15–19 Muḥarram 1435h (19–22 November 2013),

Having examined the research papers submitted to the Academy concerning

Dialogue between Followers of Islamic Denominations,

Having listened to the in-depth discussions on the subject,


  1. Reaffirming previous Academy resolutions, particularly resolution 98 (1/11) concerning Islamic Unity and no. 152 (1/17) on “Islam, the One Ummah: Theological, Jurisprudential, and Educational Schools.”
  2. Dialogue between followers of Islamic denominations is a process of exchanging views on a particular subject among followers of different Islamic denominations and schools far away from fanaticism and in order to reach common, convergent or co-existing understandings.
  3. Dialogue is a social necessity for continuity and soundness of life and, in- deed, the more so among followers of the same faith in the contemporary world of groupings and alliances.
  4. Dialogue has specific morals that need to be recognized, including sincer- ity, dissenter respect, abandonment of bigotry, avoidance of exhibition- ism and ostentation, choosing the best persuation methods, and arguing in a friendly manner.
  5. Dialogue has modalities that govern its process and ensure its success, of which most important are the following:

    1. Agreement on a referential method of reasoning – which is the method agreed upon among the scholars of the Ummah – and emphasizing the intention to observe it.
    2. Identification of aspects of agreement and those of dispute and using the former as a basis for discussing the This would ensure

continuity of mutual understanding and respect of each other’s opinion, as far as such opinion does not contradict a clear text of the Quran or Sunnah or challenge points of irrefutable consensus among scholars of the Ummah.

  1. Dialogue is relevant in the context of suppositional issues, which are open for ijtihād (interpretative judgement). As regards issues on which decisive Shariah rulings are provided, dialogue is irrelevant except for the exchange of advice concerning their observation of such rulings and how they could be applied.
  1. Adoption of the plan prepared by the Secretariat of the Academy for tackling this aspect as part of the 10-Year Strategic Plan, endorsed by the resolution of the 3rd Extraordinary Islamic Summit, held in Makkah al-Mukarramah, on kind invitation from the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, during 5–6 Dhū al-Qi’dah 1426h (7–8 December 2005). This plan, which was submitted to OIC and cleared by a group of renowned leading scholars from all Islamic schools on invitation from the OIC Secretary General on 28 July 2008, has to be circulated among the con- cerned parties indicated in it.


  1. Reemphasizing that it is incumbent upon followers of all Islamic denom- inations to show full respect to the Mothers of Believers يضرهللا اهنع (Ummuhāt al-Muʾminīn, Wives of the Prophet SAW) as well as Prophet’s companions and family and refrain from doing wrong to them through belittling of their high standing or defaming them.
  2. Prohibition of charging any Muslim sect with infidelity as long as such sect believes in Allāh the Almighty, His Messenger Muhammad SAW, Fundamentals of Islam and those of Īmān (belief ), while it does not deny intuitively known aspects of religion.
  3. Prohibition of shedding the blood of or fighting any follower of any Muslim
  4. Preventing any missionary work among followers of other schools in or- der to ward off sedition, separation, rancor and ill will between them.
  5. Circulation of previous recommendations among OIC Member states to incorporate them in educational curricula, disseminate them through media and adopt them as a continuous political position.
  6. Calling upon the Academy to organize seminars and forums to deepen

the dialogue between followers of Islamic sects, eliminate barriers that encounter such dialogue, reaffirm common fundamentals and values and promote the culture of tolerance, reasonability and moderation.

Indeed, Allāh is the Giver of Success.

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