Madinah Declaration on Gracious Coexistence in the Shade of Islam

In the Name of Allāh,

the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful

Praise is due to Allāh, Lord of the worlds, may the blessings and peace be upon our master Muḥammad, the last of prophets, on his family, and all his companions.

Resolution No. 229 (13/23)

Madinah Declaration on Gracious Coexistence in the Shade of Islam

Given the Ummah’s internal problems and external challenges, the International Islamic Fiqh Academy issued the Madinah Declaration on Gracious Coexistence in the Shade of Islam that will be published separately from the resolutions.

Indeed, Allāh is All-Knowing.

Madinah Declaration on Gracious Coexistence in the Shade of Islam

In the name of Allāh, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful

All praise is due to Allāh, Lord of the worlds, may the blessing and peace of Allāh be upon whom was sent as mercy to the worlds, our Prophet Muhammad, on his family and all his companions.


The religion of Islam is the final religion, and its law is the seal of divine laws. It is a call to unify Allāh; its principal purpose is the same purpose of the divine revelations; the goodness and happiness of humanity in this world and the hereafter. Allāh the Almighty said:

«We have not sent you, (O Muhammad), except as a mercy to the worlds.»

(Al-Anbiyā, 107)

«We have sent down to you the Book as clarification for all things and as guidance and mercy and good tidings for the Muslims.»

(Al-Nahl, 89)

We, members of the Council of the International Islamic Fiqh Academy of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, meeting in its 23rd session in al-Mad- inah al-Munawwarah, on 19–23 Ṣafar 1440h (28 October–01 November 2018), Believing in the importance of Islam, its principles and values, which are some of the most needed values by humanity and society, will present them in this declaration, following the footsteps of the Messenger of Allāh SAW when he migrated to Madinah and issued a covenant between its inhabitants and various groups to regulate relationships between them, wherein the Messenger of Allāh

prescribed major Islamic principles, which are as follows:

– 1 –

The call of Islam is an open invitation, and the Messenger SAW was sent to all humanity. Allāh the Almighty said:

«We have not sent you except to all humanity as a bringer of good tid- ings and a warner. But, most of the people do not know.»

(Sabaʾ, 28)

Given the universality of the message of Islam, the call to Islam has been one of several obligations and should be conveyed with wisdom, good exhor-

tation, and gentle persuasion, away from arrogance and coarseness. Allāh the Almighty said:

«Invite to the way of your Lord with wisdom and good exhortation and argue with them in a way that is best. Indeed, your Lord is most knowing of who have strayed from His way, and He is most knowing of who are rightly guided.»

(Al-Naḥl, 125)

– 2 –

In the Islamic worldview, the human being is the vicegerent of Allāh on earth. Allāh the Almighty honored him by giving him a body and a soul. It is not per- missible to harm, despise, or humiliate him, whether dead or alive. Allāh the Almighty said:

«We have certainly honored the children of Adam and carried them on land and sea and provided for them of the good things (sustenance) and preferred them over much of what We have created, with definite preference.»

(Al-Isrāʾ, 70)

The Messenger of Allāh SAW said, “To break a dead person’s bone is like break- ing his bone alive.”29

All creatures are made to serve humanity thanks to Allāh the Almighty, who said: «Have you not seen that Allāh has subjected to you whatever is in the skies and whatever is on the earth, and has completed His favours to you, both seen and unseen? Yet there are some who dispute concern- ing Allāh, without knowledge or guidance or an enlightening Book.»

(Luqmān, 20)

«He has subjected whatever is in sky and on the earth to you; it is all from Him. In that are signs for those who think.»

(Al-Jāthiyah, 13)

– 3 –

Given that Islam always emphasized the human being as body, mind and soul, to fulfil his/her duties of vicegerency on this earth, Allāh the Almighty has en- joined men to follow his laws carried by prophets and messengers. Man’s fate is

29 Abū Dāwūd Sulaymān bin al-Ashʿath. Al-Sunnan. Volume 3, No. 3207.

determined in this life and on the last day in accordance with his commitment to divine laws. Allāh the Almighty said:

«Descend from Paradise – all, as enemies to one another. And If there comes to you guidance from Me, then whoever follows My guidance will not lose his way, nor will he come to grief. And whoever turns away from My remembrance – indeed, he will have a depressed life, and We will gather him on the Day of Resurrection blind.»

(Ṭāhā, 123–124)

– 4 –

Starting from the above, scholars divided the rules of Shariah into three catego- ries to reflect its universality and its handling of all human conditions and his various relationships; the first being the creed; the second being morality, and the third is operational and includes the acts of worship and worldly transac- tions and dealings.

– 5 –

In Islam, there is no difference between humans based on color, gender, or lan- guage. They all come from the same origin, from one father and one mother (Adam and Eve), Allāh the Almighty said:

«O mankind, fear your Lord, who created you from a single soul. He created its mate from it and from the two of them spread countless men and women (throughout the earth). And fear Allāh, in whose name you appeal to one another, and be mindful of your obligations in respect of ties of kinship. Indeed, Allāh is ever, over you, an Observer.»

(Al-Nisāʾ, 1)

said: ملسو هيلع هللا ىلص Allāh of Messenger The

«Verily, Allāh the Almighty says: O mankind, indeed We have created you from male and female and made you peoples and tribes that you may know one another. Indeed, the most noble of you in the sight of Allāh is the most righteous of you.» (Al-Ḥujurāt, 13) Verily! There is no superiority of an Arab over a non-Arab or of a non-Arab over an Arab, or of a white man over a black man, or of a black man over a white man, except in terms of Taqwā (piety and obedience of Allāh).30

30 Sulaymān bin Aḥmad al-Ṭabarānī. Al-Muʿjam al-Kabīr. Volume 18.

– 6 –

Furthermore, there is no difference between males and females regarding their human dignity and their provisions in Shariah. Allāh the Almighty said:

«The believing men and believing women are allies of one another. They enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong and establish prayer and give zakāh (obligatory charity) and obey Allāh and His Messenger. Those – Allāh will have mercy upon them. Indeed, Allāh is Exalted in Might and Wise.»

(Tawbah, 71)

The Messenger of Allāh SAW said: “Verily, women are equal to men.”31

Hence, this is why the Quranic and the Prophetic discourses always address humanity with “O People”, and “O Believers” which includes both males and females, as shown in the above verses.

– 7 –

One of the pillars of Islamic faith is to believe in all prophets and messengers, in the books revealed to them, and to respect and glorify all of them, and believe that they are all sent by Allāh the Almighty to call for His oneness and worship. It is not permissible for a Muslim to discriminate between the prophets and messengers of Allāh. Allāh the Almighty said:

«The Messenger has believed in what was revealed to him from his Lord, and so have the believers. All of them have believed in Allāh and His angels and His books and His messengers, saying, “We make no dis- tinction between any of His messengers.” And they say, “We hear and we obey. We seek Your forgiveness, our Lord, and to You is the (final) destination.”»

(Al-Baqarah, 285)

Islam preaches dialogue and gentle persuasion with the People of the Book (Jews and Christians). Allāh the Almighty said:

«Say, “O People of the Book, come to a word that is equitable between us and you – that we will not worship except Allāh and not associate anything with Him and not take one another as lords instead of Allāh.”

31 Abū ʿĪsā Muḥammad al-Tirmidhī. Al-Sunnan. Volume 1. No. 113.

But if they turn away, then say, “Bear witness that we are Muslims [sub- mitting to Him].”»

(Āl ʿImrān, 64)

– 8 –

Islam should be embraced with full conscience without moral or physical pressure or exploitation of the weaknesses of those invited to Islam. Allāh the Almighty said:

«There shall be no compulsion in acceptance of the religion. True guid- ance has become distinct from error. So, whoever disbelieves in Taghut and believes in Allāh has grasped the most trustworthy handhold with no break in it. And Allāh is Hearing and Knowing.»

(Al-Baqarah, 256)

«Had your Lord willed, those on earth would have believed – all of them entirely. Then, (O Muhammad), would you compel the people in order that they become believers?»

(Yūnus, 99)

– 9 –

Islam preserves human life and considers it sacred. Killing one soul in Islam is like killing all humanity, and reviving one soul is like reviving all humanity, which was also the call of all divine laws. Allāh the Almighty said:

«Because of that, We decreed upon the Children of Israel that whoever kills a soul unless for a soul or for corruption done in the land – it is as if he had slain mankind entirely. And whoever saves one – it is as if he had saved mankind entirely. And our messengers had certainly come to them with clear proofs. Then indeed many of them, even after that, throughout the land, were transgressors.»

(Al-Māʾidah, 32)

– 10 –

Islam has forbidden and denounced aggressions against both Muslims and non-Muslims and considered it one of the most heinous crimes. Allāh the Almighty said:

«Do not spread corruption upon the earth after it has been set in order.»

(Al-Aʿrāf, 56)

«Say, My Lord has forbidden immoralities – what is apparent of them and what is concealed – and sin, and oppression without right, and that you associate with Allāh that for which He has not sent down authority, and that you say about Allāh that which you do not know.»

(Al-Aʿrāf, 33)

Because of the severity of corruption on earth, it shall receive appropriate punishments, in accordance with what Allāh the Almighty said: «Indeed, the penalty for those who wage war against Allāh and His Messenger and strive upon earth to cause corruption is none but that they be killed or crucified or that their hands and feet be cut off from opposite sides or that they be exiled from the land. That is for them a disgrace in this world; and for them in the hereafter is a great punishment.»

(Al-Māʾidah, 33)

– 11 –

In Islam, the family is the core of a solid social fabric, and it is built on a suc- cessful marriage based on tranquility, affection, and compassion. It is not per- missible to assault or harm it. Allāh the Almighty said:

«And of His signs is that He created for you from among yourselves spouses that you may find tranquility in them; and He placed between you affection and mercy. Indeed, in that are signs for a people who reflect.»

(Al-Rūm, 21)

– 12 –

Peace is one of the most prominent symbols of Islam, which is the basis of the relationship with others. Kindness to others is considered one of Islam’s char- acteristics. Allāh the Almighty said:

«Allāh does not forbid you from those who do not fight you because of religion and do not expel you from your homes – from being righteous toward them and acting justly toward them. Indeed, Allāh loves those who act justly. Allāh only forbids you from those who fight you because of religion and expel you from your homes and aid in your expulsion

– (forbids) that you make allies of them. And whoever makes allies of them, then it is those who are the transgressors.»

(Al-Mumtaḥanah, 8–9)

«Fight in the way of Allāh those who wage war against you, but do not transgress. Indeed. Allāh does not like transgressors.»

(Al-Baqarah, 190)

Jihād (struggle or effort) was legislated to repel aggression, defend the country, break barriers that oppress people who wish to believe in Allāh and in his last religion, as well as to protect the vulnerable. Allāh the Almighty said:

«And what is [the matter] with you that you fight not in the cause of Allāh and for the oppressed among men, women, and children who say, “Our Lord, take us out of this city of oppressive people and appoint for us from Yourself a protector and appoint for us from Yourself a helper?“»

(Al-Nisāʾ, 75)

Removing barriers includes correcting misconceptions about Islam and clar- ifying its true teachings. Therefore, jihād in Islam can only be justified to repel aggression, remove barriers preventing people from embracing Islam, and de- fend the oppressed and the vulnerable. Allāh the Almighty said:

«Confront them until there is no fitnah [a state of tribulation and pros- ecution] and [until] the religion, all of it, is for Allāh. And if they cease

– then indeed, Allāh is Seeing of what they do.»

(Al-Anfāl, 39)

– 13 –

Aggression against others, their lives, properties and dignities, is not permissible in Islam. Responding to attacks in defence of religion, lives, dignity, and prop- erty can only be on an equitable basis. Allāh the Almighty said:

«Whoever has assaulted you, then assault him in the same way that he has assaulted you. And fear Allāh and know that Allāh is with those who fear Him.»

(Al-Baqarah, 194)

«If you want to retaliate, retaliate to the same degree as the injury done to you. But if you are patient, it is better to be so.»

(Al-Naḥl, 126)

– 14 –

The commitment to peace that preserves the rights of opponents is an impor- tant requirement in Islam. Allāh the Almighty said:

«Then if they should be inclined to make peace, make peace with them, and put your trust in Allāh. Surely, it is He who is the Hearing, the Knowing»

(Al-Anfāl, 61)

Treachery and treason are forbidden in Islam. Allāh the Almighty said:

«If you have reason to fear from people a treachery, throw their treaty back to them, (putting you) on equal terms. Indeed, Allāh does not like traitors.»

(Al-Anfāl, 58)

– 15 –

One of the clear teachings of Islam is the denunciation of all forms of current terrorism such as the killing of innocent people, assault on families, the ex- propriation of cities, towns, and properties, and assault on dignities are evil actions that afflict all humanity, in addition to the assault against al-Masjid al- Aqsa (The Sacred Mosque of Jerusalem), and the blowing up of any Mosque. Islam opposes all these crimes and evil actions and describes them as forms of oppression and transgression.

Therefore, a massive media campaign must be launched to clarify real facts about Islam and its great leadership of humanity, which brings welfare to it both in this life and in the hereafter. This should also reflect in our educational curricula and programs.

– 16 –

Mercy, compassion, amnesty, forgiveness, tolerance, kindness and honesty are qualities of the Messenger of Islam, Muhammad SAW. Muslims must follow his example and emulate his morals when dealing with others, whether Muslims or non-Muslims. Allāh the Almighty said:

«Hence, We have made you a middle nation.»

(Al-Baqarah, 143)

«So by mercy from Allāh, (O Muhammad), you were gentle with them.

for if you had been harsh [in speech] and hard-hearted, they would surely have deserted you.»

(Āl ʿImrān, 159)

«There has certainly been for you in the Messenger of Allāh an excellent example for those whose hope is in Allāh and the Last Day and [who] remembers Allāh often.»

(Al-Aḥzāb, 21)

– 17 –

Temperance, moderation, and balance are the path Muslims must follow in all their affairs. Extremism and fanaticism are forbidden crimes. Allāh the Almighty said:

«Say, O People of the Book, do not exceed limits in your religion be- yond the truth and do not follow the inclinations of a people who had gone astray before and misled many and have strayed from the sound- ness of the way.»

(Al-Māʾidah, 77)

Sayyidah Aishah يضر هللا اهنع said, “Never did the Messenger of Allāh make a choice between two things but taking the easier one as compared to the difficult one, but his choice for the easier one was only in case it did not involve any sin, but if it involved sin he was the one who was the farthest from it amongst people.”32 These values (temperance, moderation, and balance) are embodied in many forms addressed by the divine law. Its high objective is to harmonize between the physical and the spiritual, between public and private matters, and between

earthly and heavenly rewards. Allāh the Almighty said:

«So when I have proportioned him (Adam) and breathed into him of My soul, then fall down to him in prostration.»

(Ṣād, 72)

Moreover, the Messenger of Allāh SAW said:

The likeness of the man who observes the limits prescribed by Allāh and that of the man who transgresses them is like the people who get on board a ship after casting lots. Some of them are in its lower deck and some of them in its upper (deck). Those who are in its lower (deck), when they require water, go to the occupants of the upper deck, and say to them, “If we make a hole in the bottom of the ship, we shall not harm you.” If they (the occupants of the upper deck) leave them to carry out

32 Imam al-Bukhārī. Ṣaḥīḥ. Volume 4, No. 3560.

their design, they all will be drowned. But if they do not let them go ahead (with their plan), all of them will remain safe.33

– 18 –

Cooperation among the children of Adam is the practical result of their sound relationships, which should aim towards human welfare. The differences – based on religion, colour and gender – do not hinder or weaken the call for cooper- ation between humans. Allāh the Almighty said:

«Do not let the enmity of those who barred you from al-Masjid al- Haram (the Sacred Mosque) lead you into sin. Help one another in goodness and in piety. Do not help one another in sin and aggression. Fear Allāh! Allāh is severe in punishment.»

(Al-Māʾidah, 2)

– 19 –

Non-Muslims living in Muslim countries have the same rights as Muslims, and they have the freedom to maintain their religions and perform their rituals. Allāh the Almighty said:

«Allāh does not forbid you from those who do not fight you because of religion and do not expel you from your homes – from being kind toward them and acting justly toward them. Indeed, Allāh loves those who act justly.»

(Al-Mumtaḥanah, 8)

The Almighty also said, «There shall be no compulsion in acceptance of the religion.»

(Al-Baqarah, 256)

The Prophetic Covenant or the Charter of Medina, which the Messenger of Allāh SAW decreed to the people of Medina after his migration there, was the backbone that regulated relationships between the social components of the first Islamic society and state. It was the embodiment of the great principles addressed by Islam. Hence comes the importance of dialogue and gentle persuasion for a secure social fabric, which has been practically and repeatedly proven in Islamic history under the slogan: “They are equal to us, and we are equal to them.”

Jizyah was, in fact, a fee in exchange for protection. Abu Ubayda Amer bin al-Jarah يضر هللا هنع returned the jizyah to the people of Homs in Syria after its con- quest until he proved he could protect them. Muslim armies withdrew from

33 Imam al-Bukhārī. Ṣaḥīḥ. Volume 3, No. 2493.

Samarkand after its conquest by a judicial decree after it became clear that they were neither invited to Islam, nor given a choice, nor waited for their response, as per the principles of jihad in Islam.

Furthermore, Islam also emphasized the rights of non-Muslim minorities living in Muslim society, called for leaving them in peace with their beliefs, and forbade attacking churches and places of worship. It also granted them freedom of faith and to maintain their religions.

– 20 –

The Islamic State of Madinah is a perfect example of Islamic principles and val- ues. This was manifested in the Charter signed by Prophet Muhammad SAW when he arrived in Madinah, in which he gave the Jews safety over their religion and properties and therein he declared, “The Jews are free to practice their religion.”34

– 21 –

Islam is an invitation to justice and respect for others’ rights, regardless of their religion or gender, color or language. Injustice is forbidden even with enemies. Allāh the Almighty said:

«Indeed, Allāh commands you to render trusts to whom they are due and when you judge between people to judge with justice. Excellent is that which Allāh instructs you. Indeed, Allāh is ever Hearing and Seeing.»

(Al-Nisāʾ, 58)

«O you who have believed, be persistently standing firm for Allāh, wit- nesses in justice, and do not let the hatred of a people prevent you from being just. Be just; that is nearer to righteousness. And fear Allāh; indeed, Allāh is Acquainted with what you do.»

(Al-Māʾidah, 8)

says: ىلاعتو هناحبس Allāh that qudsī ḥadīth a in narrated ملسو هيلع هللا ىلص Allāh of Messenger The

O My slaves, I have made injustice unlawful for myself, and I have made it unlawful among you, so do not be unjust to one another.35

– 22 –

Holding firm on Allāh and working on unity and cooperation among Muslims

  • The Covenant of Prophet Muhammad , also known as the Charter or Constitution of
  • Imam Ṣaḥīḥ. Volume 4, No. 2577.

represent a strong fortress and a source of their happiness in this life and the hereafter, whereas distancing from Allāh and disunity among Muslims are the way to their misfortune and the reason for their calamities. Allāh the Almighty said:

«Whoever turns away from My remembrance – indeed, he will have a depressed life, and We will raise him on the Day of Resurrection blind.»

(Ṭāhā, 124)

«Hold firmly to the rope of Allāh all together and let nothing divide you.»

(Āl ʿImrān, 103)

«Whoever holds firmly to Allāh has indeed been guided to a straight path.»

(Āl ʿImrān, 101)

Scientific cooperation and economic solidarity amongst Muslims are a key to their strength; and a way to their enrichment and to the comfort of their peoples, as well as a source for their stability, prosperity and security. Allāh the Almighty said:

«Help one another in righteousness and piety but do not help one an- other in sin and aggression. And fear Allāh; indeed, Allāh is severe in punishment.»

(Al-Māʾidah, 2)

– 23 –

Islam emphasized the rights of neighbors regardless of their faith. It called and exhorted for honoring them, Allāh the Almighty said:

«Worship Allāh and associate nothing with Him, and to parents do good, and to relatives, orphans, the needy, the near neighbour, the neighbour farther away, the companion at your side, the traveller, and those whom your right hands possess. Indeed, Allāh does not like those who are ar- rogant and boastful.»

(Al-Nisāʾ, 36)

The Messenger of Allāh SAW repeated three times:

“By Allāh, he does not have faith, by Allāh, he does not have faith, by Allāh, he does not have faith!” He was asked, “Who is it, O Messenger of Allāh?” The Messenger SAW said, “He whose neighbour is not safe from his harm.”36

  • Imam al-Bukhārī. Ṣaḥīḥ. Volume 8, 6016.

– 24 –

Islam encourages science and advocates it. Allāh the Almighty said:

«Only those fear Allāh, from among His servants, who have knowledge. Indeed, Allāh is Exalted in Might and Forgiving.»

(Fāṭir, 28)

The first verse revealed in the Quran started with the command to Read:

«Read! In the name of your Lord, who created – Created man from a clot [of blood]. Read! Your Lord is the Most Bountiful One, Who taught by the pen, Taught man what he did not know.»

(Al-ʿAlaq, 1–5)

– 25 –

Working and striving on earth to secure livelihood is an obligation in Islam. There are many references to work in the Quran and Sunnah. Allāh the Almighty said:

«And when the prayer has been concluded, disperse within the land and seek from the bounty of Allāh, and remember Allāh often that you may succeed,» (Al-Jumuʿah, 10) and He The Almighty said: «It is He who made the earth subservient to you – so walk among its slopes and eat of His provision – and to Him is the resurrection.»

(Al-Mulk, 15)

Hard and responsible work is the only way to the renaissance of Muslims, the prosperity of their nations, and the comfort of their people. All prophets of Allāh used to work, Al-Miqdam bin Ma’adi Yakrib يضر هللا هنع reported that the Messenger of Allāh SAW said:

No food is better to man than that which he earns through his manual work. Dawud, the Prophet of Allāh SAW, ate only out of earnings from his manual work.37

In the Revival of Religious Sciences, Imam al-Ghazzālī said,

If people abandon industries and agriculture, life will become empty and most of society will be ruined. The best system is mutual cooperation, where each social group is committed to a particular profession. If all social groups practice the same profession, the remaining professions would disappear, and people would perish.

The Muslim society is united and cooperative. Al-Numan bin Bashir reported that the Messenger of Allāh SAW said:

  • Imam al-Bukhārī. Ṣaḥīḥ. Volume 3, 2072.

The likeliness of believers as regards to being merciful among themselves and showing love and being kind, resembles one body, so that, if any part of the body is not well then the whole body shares the sleeplessness and fever with it.38

said: also ملسو هيلع هللا ىلص Allāh of Messenger The

No one of you becomes a true believer until he loves for his brother what he loves for himself.39

– 26 –

Comprehensive development, with all its dimensions, is one of the main require- ments in Islam by establishing plans and programs to achieve them. Muslims must contribute every effort to the renaissance of their countries in all areas, in- cluding agriculture, industry, defence, and medicine. They should acquire these through nationalization of sciences and technologies and integration between different specialities, based on what Allāh the Almighty said:

«And prepare for them whatever you are able of power.»

(Al-Anfāl, 60)

«We taught him the craft of making coats of armour to protect you from your (enemy in) battle. Will you then be grateful?»

(Al-Anbiyā, 80)

– 27 –

Reconciliation between Muslims and prevention of transgression is an essential commandment of Shariah, Allāh the Almighty said:

«If two factions among the believers fight against each other, then make peace between the two. But if one of them oppresses the other, then fight against the one that oppresses until it returns to the command of Allāh. And if it returns, then make peace between them in justice and act justly. Indeed, Allāh loves those who act justly.»

(Al-Ḥujurāt, 9)

Failure to reconcile between Muslims causes afflictions, unrests, and disputes among them. Afflictions pave the way for many evils so they must be prevented and fought by various means as they cause divisions among Muslims, break their unity, and enable their enemies to deceive them. Allāh the Almighty said:

  • Imam Ṣaḥīḥ. Volume 4, No. 2586.
  • Imam Ṣaḥīḥ. Volume 1, No. 45.

«Fear an affliction which will not strike those who have wronged among you exclusively, and know that Allāh is severe in punishment.»

(Al-Anfāl, 25)

The Almighty also said, «Do not dispute and thus lose courage and then your strength would depart, and be patient. Indeed, Allāh is with the patient.» (Al-Anfāl, 46)

– 28 –

Social solidarity between Muslims is one of the most important religious re- quirements.40 The wealthy relative should help the poor relative and give the poor their due from their wealth, such as Zakāh – which is a legal obligation

– charities, Awqāf, donations, and so forth. These acts are recommended and desirable in Shariah because solidarity is one of the causes of social security and stability. Allāh the Almighty said:

«Give to your relatives their due, and also to the needy and the wayfarer. Yet do not spend extravagantly.»

(Isrāʾ, 27)

«Take, (O, Muhammad), from their wealth a charity by which you pu- rify them and cause them increase, and invoke (Allāh’s blessings) upon them. Indeed, your invocations are reassurance for them. And Allāh is Hearing and Knowing.»

(Tawbah, 103)

bin Muʿādh sent ملسو هيلع هللا ىلص Allāh of Messenger the that reported هنع هللا يضر ʿAbbās Ibn him: told and Yemen to هنع هللا يضر Jabal

Verily, you are coming to a people among the people of the Book, so call them to testify there is no Allāh but Allāh, and I am the Messenger of Allāh. If they accept that, then teach them that Allāh has obligated five prayers in each day and night. If they accept that, then teach them that Allāh as obligated charity to be taken from the rich and given to the poor.41

– 29 –

Among the fundamental principles of Islam, is the assurance of a serene life for every individual in society regardless of his creed. When Caliph ʿUmar bin al- Khaṭṭāb يضر هللا هنع (583–644CE) saw an old Jewish man complaining, “I do not have

  • The numbering system has been amended in this resolution for translation purposes, but the original content remains unchanged.
  • Imam al-Bukhārī. Ṣaḥīḥ. Volume 5, 4347.

money and jizyah is being taken from me.” He replied, “Verily! We had not done justice to you as we took jizyah from you when you were young, but we forsook you when you are old.” Then, he wrote to his agents in Basra not to take jizyah from the elderly, and he instructed the Bayt al-Māl (House of Wealth/Public Treasury) to take care of his needs and of whoever was like him.42

Moreover, ʿUmar bin ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz (682–720CE), another Caliph, also wrote to his agents in Basra saying, “Look after the elderly people of the dhimmah (non-Muslims under state protection) who have become old and weak, and do not take jizyah from them, and give them whatever they need from Bayt al-Māl.”43

– 30 –

In light of the previous statements, which served as the basis for the resolutions of International Islamic Fiqh Academy, researched, discussed, and published on various topics such as beliefs, worships, transactions, crimes, ethics, and all that concerns the human community.

These resolutions should seriously be taken into consideration by the con- temporary Islamic discourse, which requires that the preaching to Allāh be in- sightful when talking about economic, medical, family, intellectual, scientific, and so on issues. Allāh the Almighty said:

«Say, this is my way; I invite to Allāh with insight, I and those who follow me. And exalted is Allāh; and I am not of those who associate others with Him.» (Yūsuf, 108)

The training of preachers and scholars should meet the challenges of this age by knowing accurate facts about Islam and the realities of contemporary society, as well as calling to Allāh with wisdom and good exhortation, and defending Islam with kindness and gentleness, following the words of Allāh who said:

«Invite to the way of your Lord with wisdom and good exhortation, and argue with them in a way that is best.»

(Al-Naḥl, 125)

To conclude,

May the Blessing and peace of Allāh be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and all his companions.

The Council of the International Islamic Fiqh Academy 23 Ṣafar 1440 (01 November 2018)

  • Ibn Zanjawī. Kitāb al-Amwāl. Volume 1, 165.
  • Ibn Zanjawī. Kitāb al-Amwāl. Volume 1, 79.
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